In this article, I will explain the three types of conflict in literature. You will gain an understanding of how using conflict in literature will make you a better writer. As well as help you to create engaging stories that capture the reader's imagination. I will also show you how to avoid creating boring and one-dimensional characters.

How to Create Tension in Writing

So, how to create tension in writing.

In a previous article, I discussed the importance of structuring your novel.

I suggested you use a Three or Five-Act structure which, in brief, contains an initial inciting incident, which compels the protagonist to act (Act 1), a climax that sees the inciting incident resolved (Act 2), and a section of resolution that ties up all of the loose ends (Act 3).

A very basic example of this would be a crime novel. The inciting incident would be the discovery of a body, the climax is the solving of the crime and capture of the murderer, the resolution is the motive behind the crime and the character's actions.

The beginning of traditionally structured novels sees an inciting incident. Once this incident has occurred the writer has set up a level of tension within the reader's mind. The reader knows this incident must be resolved and they will keep reading to seek the emotional release set up by the inciting incident, this is just human nature at work. This is the cliffhanger effect.

Imagine someone telling you the set up to a joke in the morning and then refusing to tell you the punch line until the next day. It would drive you insane! No matter how poor the joke, your natural instinct will drive you to resolve the mystery.

Writers can exploit this human trait.

Once the inciting incident has been set up, your novel will gain its own 'momentum'. However, simply resolving the inciting incident would produce a short and very boring book. Instead, the reader is engaged by placing the protagonist in a state that, whilst seeking to resolve the inciting incident, the main character is continually faced and forced to resolve smaller conflicts.

The set-up and resolution of smaller conflicts, within the novel's wider tension that comes from the resolution of the inciting incident, is the bricks and mortar of a novel.

The best way how to create tension in writing, is through the protagonist's reaction to events.

Whilst these events may represent physical conflict, they may also illustrate other levels of conflict. The protagonist may encounter any of the three types of conflict.

The choices a character makes and how these reflect internal dialogues can be illustrated by how they react to a particular event. It is the way in which the protagonist faces and resolves the conflict, whilst in the search to resolve the final inciting incident, that will keep the reader interested.

The Three Types of Conflict in Literature

In his book Story, Robert McKee explains that there are three levels or types of conflict in literature:

  1. Inner: This is a protagonist's internal thoughts, feelings and belief system.
  2. Personal: This is relationships with friends and family.
  3. Extra-personal: This is society as a whole.

Inner conflict is the level of conflict at which literature have the advantage over other mediums such as films. The inner conflict is the voice that plays inside everyone's head, it is their thinking, decision-making, sets of beliefs, prejudices etc. A skillful writer will establish an inner voice for their main characters and then demonstrate how this conflicts with external events and actions. The beauty of a novel is that you can 'show' a reader the protagonist's inner thoughts. You can demonstrate how they are at conflict as they struggle through a string of events. A good example of a novel that uses inner conflict well is The Naked Lunch by William S. Burroughs.

Personal conflict is the next level up and focuses on the conflict that arises from the interaction between characters. Conflict in this context is not violence (though that may be an option). Conflict is simply a set of circumstances/events/thoughts that are opposed to the protagonist's wishes as they move to the resolution of the inciting incident. McKee suggests that a good example of personal conflict is the soap opera. I would add to this that any great love story operates on a personal conflict level - boy meets girl, boy falls in love with girl, girl's parents/friends/society disapprove of the relationship.

Extra-personal conflict is the final level of conflict and involves the protagonist's interaction with a wider society. This could be with the beliefs of society, such as in George Orwell's 1984 or with the police/army/enemy (see any war/action movie). Extra-personal conflict is almost exclusively event driven.

Building Better Stories

The best novels use all three types of conflict.

A great example of this has already been mentioned, and that's Orwell's 1984. Orwell demonstrates a masterful use of conflict in this book as he drags the reader to the book's inevitable conclusion.

The inciting incident comes when the protagonist (Winston Smith) receives a note that simply says, 'I love you'. This note forces a string of inner, personal and extra-personal conflicts as Winston Smith is forced to act. This then sets up a situation that must inevitably be resolved. At the highest level there is constant extra-personal conflict as Big Brother looks on, dictating the every move and thought of Winston Smith. The personal conflict is brought into sharp focus as Winston Smith's relationship with Julia (the author of the note) develops a relationship that is forbidden by Big Brother. The final level of conflict, inner conflict, is presented throughout the book as Winston Smith struggles to reconcile his own internal thoughts, and desires with the propaganda of Big Brother. In fact, you could argue that what makes 1984 such a successful novel is not its dystopia vision, but the deeper questions that Winston smith is force to ask and answer via the inner conflict.

What to do Now…

I suggest that, if you do nothing else having read this chapter, it would be to start looking at novels and stories in relation to conflict. Practice using all three types of conflict in your writing.

Read a profound piece of literature. A bestselling 'classic' is a good place to start, and view the novel in terms of locating the inciting incident, whilst also recognizing internal, personal and extra-personal conflict.

It is also worth considering seeking professional help to improve your book. This article about book editing will help provide more information.